Focus 5.5 Accounting Software
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In order to simulate the flow dynamics in an edge-of-field water body in a realistic way, the field-scale system is defined as the downstream part of a small catchment basin. Water flow is described with the aid of a simple water balance, accounting for all major incoming and outgoing water fluxes. The water level is a function of time, but assumed to be constant in the water body system considered. Water levels are calculated either by assuming uniform flow conditions (Chézy-Manning equation), or by assuming a backwater curve in front of a weir.
TOXSWA simulates water flow and pesticide behaviour in small surface waters; water and pesticide entries into the water body system are calculated by other tools or models. Spray drift deposition numbers are calculated by the FOCUS Drift Calculator and put into TOXSWA input files by SWASH, the FOCUS Step 3 software shell. Drainage water and pesticide fluxes are read from a MACRO output file and runoff/erosion fluxes from a PRZM output file.
Beltman, W.H.J., C. Vink, A. Poot, 2016. Calculation of exposure concentrations for NL standard scenarios by the TOXSWA model; use of FOCUS_TOXSWA 4.4.3 software for plant protection products and their metabolites in Dutch risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems. WOt-technical report 77, Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu), Wageningen, the Netherlands, 46 p.
Microsoft Dynamics GP is a comprehensive accounting and business managementsystem composed of modules that focus on meeting specific business needs. Thesemodules integrate with System Manager to meet your accounting and businessmanagement goals, and are organized into solution series, which group modulesthat have similar purposes.
Some materials have been provided to help you plan for implementing Microsoft Dynamics GP. Check the navigation panel to the left to get an overview of available material. In addition to defining a schedule for setting up and using the software, many businesses make detailed assignments for specific tasks, such as defining customer and vendor numbers, creating vendor, item and customer records, entering and posting beginning balances.
The procedures in Chapter 2, \"Setting up Microsoft Dynamics GP,\" can helpyou assign specific setup tasks to users from within Microsoft Dynamics GPafter the initial installation on the server. If you haven't set up businessmanagement software before, your authorized Microsoft partner can help youdevelop a plan for your business.
Using software effectively involves installing service packs, and upgrades.In addition, there are certain tasks that should be completed at the end ofaccounting periods and fiscal and calendar years. Managers, networkadministrators and IT professionals will be more involved in completingtasks in this phase than in the operate phase.
If you have purchased the right to use Microsoft Dynamics GP for a periodtime, you are a subscription customer. As a subscription customer, you'lluse the named user system to create as many active user records as you'veregistered for Microsoft Dynamics GP. For example, you may have registeredthe accounting system for 10 users so the maximum number of active users inMicrosoft Dynamics GP can't exceed 10.
Security roles Security roles contain the security tasks that a userneeds to access to do their job. Some default security roles have beencreated for you. For example, the ACCOUNTING MANAGER* role containssecurity tasks that allow a user who is assigned to this role to viewGeneral Ledger account information, enter journal entries, enter banktransactions, and perform other tasks that an accounting manager might needto perform.
For example, user ABC is an accounting manager for Fabrikam, Inc., and needsaccess to set up General Ledger, taxes, bank accounts, and credit cards aswell as perform many other accounting tasks. Review the default securityroles in Microsoft Dynamics GP to find one that grants access to theappropriate accounting functionality for user ABC. For our example, theACCOUNTING MANAGER* security role is appropriate for user ABC. Use the UserSecurity Setup Window to assign the ACCOUNTING MANAGER* security role touser ABC in the Fabrikam, Inc. company.
Module-specific tasks Most Microsoft Dynamics GP modules have specifictasks that can be set up to require a password; each task can have adifferent password. If a password is required, all users attempting tocomplete that task must enter the password. See the setup documentation foreach accounting module for information about these passwords.
Microsoft Dynamics GP uses passwords to control access to a company andselected parts of the accounting system. Passwords can contain uppercase andlowercase letters, numeric characters, spaces, and special characters.
Task passwords Most Microsoft Dynamics GP modules have specific tasksthat can be set up to require a password; each task can have a differentpassword. If a password is required, all users attempting to complete thattask must enter the password. See the setup documentation for eachaccounting module for information about these passwords.
We recommend installing the default chart of accounts, shipping methods, andpayment terms, unless you plan to import that information from your previousaccounting system. Using the default entries will streamline the setupprocess. You'll be able to make modifications to the default entries.
You can continue using the format you've used with your previous accountingsystem, or set up a new one. To create a new format, plan the differentcategories of information you want each segment of the account to represent.For example, if you want to use one segment each for the location,department, account, subaccount, and detail, you can set up the accountformat to include five segments. The location might identify an individualstore within the company, and the department might represent thedepartmental divisions within the company. The main account segment shouldidentify the type of account: an asset account, an expense account, and soon. Subaccount and detail segments will allow you to identify more specificinformation about the account.
If you chose to install the default payment terms provided with theaccounting system when you created the company you're setting up, they'llappear when you open the Payment Terms Setup window and choose the PaymentTerms lookup button. You also can print a Payment Terms Report by choosingFile >> Print in the Payment Terms Setup window.
If, after beginning to use your accounting system, you need to update orremove any of the payment terms, you can do so at any time. Existingtransactions using the payment terms won't be affected by the changes.
Use the Multicurrency Setup window to specify functional and reportingcurrencies for each company. The functional currency is the primary currencythat the company uses for maintaining accounting records. The reportingcurrency is used to convert functional currency amounts to another currencyon inquiries and reports. For a subsidiary, the reporting currency typicallyis the functional currency of the parent company.
If, after beginning to use your accounting system, you need to update orremove any of the credit cards, you may do so at any time. Existingtransactions that were paid using the credit cards won't be affected by thechanges.
The best way to prepare for setting up the Workflow system is to create diagrams illustrating the workflow you want to create. We recommend you draw each workflow using a software program such as Visio, or by simply using pen and paper.
Journal articles are the source of the majority of data included in systematic reviews. Note that a study can be reported in multiple journal articles, each focusing on some aspect of the study (e.g. design, main results, and other results).
Different collection methods lead to very different accounting of adverse events (Safer 2002, Bent et al 2006, Ioannidis et al 2006, Carvajal et al 2011, Allen et al 2013). Non-systematic collection methods tend to underestimate how frequently an adverse event occurs. It is particularly problematic when the adverse event of interest to the review is collected systematically in some studies but non-systematically in other studies. Different collection methods introduce an important source of heterogeneity. In addition, when non-systematic adverse events are reported based on quantitative selection criteria (e.g. only adverse events that occurred in at least 5% of participants were included in the publication), use of reported data alone may bias the results of meta-analyses. Review authors should be cautious of (or refrain from) synthesizing adverse events that are collected differently.
Regardless of whether data are collected using a paper or electronic form, or a data system, the key to successful data collection is to construct easy-to-use forms and collect sufficient and unambiguous data that faithfully represent the source in a structured and organized manner (Li et al 2015). In most cases, a document format should be developed for the form before building an electronic form or a data system. This can be distributed to others, including programmers and data analysts, and as a guide for creating an electronic form and any guidance or codebook to be used by data extractors. Review authors also should consider compatibility of any electronic form or data system with analytical software, as well as mechanisms for recording, assessing and correcting data entry errors.
In most systematic reviews, the primary source of information about each study is published reports of studies, usually in the form of journal articles. Despite recent developments in machine learning models to automate data extraction in systematic reviews (see Section 5.5.9), data extraction is still largely a manual process. Electronic searches for text can provide a useful aid to locating information within a report. Examples include using search facil